Erb's Palsy

Erb's Palsy is a type of Brachial Plexus injury of a child's upper brachial plexus, affecting muscles around the shoulder and elbow. Erb's Palsy is characterized by a lack of movement in a child's arm and shoulder. As many as 60% of people with brachial plexus injuries are affected with the Erb's Palsy type.

Klumpke's Palsy
Klumpke's Palsy is a type of Brachial Plexus injury of a child's lower brachial plexus, affecting the muscles of the forearm and hand. Klumpke's Palsy is characterized by a lack of movement in a child's wrist or hand.

Horner's Syndrome
Horner's Syndrome is a type of Brachial Plexus injury that affects the facial nerves. Horner's Syndrome is a rare condition that results in ptosis of the eyelid and pupil dilation. Symptoms associated with Horner's Syndrome are constricted pupils, elevation of the eyelid, retraction of the eyeball into the head, slight drooping of the eyelid, and increased pink color and warmth of the ear and nose.

Complete Palsy
Complete Palsy is an injury to the entire Brachial Plexus. All the nerves of the Brachial Plexus are damaged to some extent.

Shoulder Dystocia
Shoulder dystocia results from a difficulty during birth in which the shoulders will not pass through the mother's pelvis. Complicated maneuvers must be performed, often resulting in injury, or shoulder dystocia. Some types of shoulder dystocia injuries are fractures of the clavicle or humerus, nerve injuries, asphyxia and death. Brachial plexus injuries may result from shoulder dystocia and is one of the most common groupings of birth injuries.

Other Birth Injuries
Other types of birth injuries include:

  • Fractures - fractures of the clavicle or collarbone are most common
  • Intracranial hemorrhage - bleeding in the baby's head
  • Spinal cord trauma
  • Cephalohematoma - an area of bleeding beneath the scalp, can lead to jaundice
  • Cranial nerve trauma
  • Caput succedaneum - swelling, bleeding, bruising, or discoloration of the scalp
  • Depressed skull fractures
  • Bruising/forceps marks
  • Facial paralysis
  • Temporary body paralysis
  • Group B strep infections - a life threatening bacterium
  • Spasticity - a condition in which certain muscles are continuously contracted
  • Soft tissue injuries
  • Skin irritation

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